DKV UNPAS Bandung: Napak Tilas Disain Grafis Indonesia

Arakanlebah, Komunitas DKV UNPAS Bandung

Napak Tilas Disain Grafis Indonesia

at 9/04/2007 , View Comments

Jarang ya menemukan literatur yang bicara tentang disain grafis di indonesia? Mungkin ini salah satunya... Selain bicara tentang sejarahnya, dalam gallery juga berisi media-media atau karya perancang grafis Indonesia dari tahun jebot, lumayan juga buat referensi.... Ini salah satu kutipan sejarah yang "jarang" kita temui:
First Brochures The growth of advertising during the Dutch Indies period had a lot to do with the growth of the economy in the region. In 1870, many Dutch investors came to invest their money in plantation and mine industries. The situation forced them to form a research foundation in order to extend and accumulate their capital. Suikersyndicaat, a sugar association, was one of them. They were the first organization that made promotional brochures to attract prospective investors. Another organization was the Javaasche Bank which also used printed materials as the media of promotion. The brochures and booklets were mostly printed by G.C.T. van Dorp & Co, which was located in Jakarta, Semarang and Surabaya.

Sebelumnya, di tahun 1700-an iklan sudah pernah dibuat di Indonesia, yang ketika itu masih menjadi jajahan Belanda. Iklan pertama di Jakarta (baca: Batavia) muncul pada tanggal 17 Agustus 1744 bersamaan dengan terbitnya surat kabar pertama oleh pemerintah Hindia Belanda. Iklan itu, awalnya adalah sebuah berita yang ditulis indah dengan tangan oleh Jan Pieterzoen Coen (Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda tahun 1619-1629), dengan judul Memorie De Nouvelles, yang ditujukan kepada pemerintah setempat di Ambon untuk melawan aktivitas perdagangan Portugis. Tulisan itu kemudian dipasang sebagai iklan oleh karyawan sekretariat kantor Gubernur Jenderal Imhoff, Jourdans di surat kabar Bataviaasche Nouvelles. Artikel selengkapnya bisa dilihat di website DGIndonesia

Sementara itu, bisa kita perbandingkan dengan linimasa sejarah Desain Grafis dunia, yang ditulis Kroeger:

A. Beginning of the Industrial Design: Great Britian and Germany
  • 1820 - Industrial Revolution :: early 19th century; patternmaker = designer
  • 1849 - Journal of Design - by Henry Cole; design should encompass more than applied ornament; knowledge of manufacturing processes and materials.
  • 1851 - Great Exhibition - decorative extravagance of Victorian design - Crystal Palace
  • 1860 - Arts and Crafts Movement - John Ruskin, William Morris, Gustav Stickley, thought machine production degrading to both workers and consumers.
  • 1903 - Wiener Werkstatle - Viennese group; similar to Arts and Crafts Movement.
  • 1901 - Frank Lloyd Wright - 'The Art and Craft of the Machine'; basic principles of modern industrial design; future designers create prototypes for machine production.
  • 1907 - Deutscher Werkbund - Hermann Muthesius...
  • 1910 - AEG (German General Electric); Peter Behrens, denounce Art Nouveau for a spare abstract neoclassicism; products, lighting fixtures, fans, advertising, graphics, and the firm's overall 'corporate image'.
  • 1919 - Bauhaus - Walter Gropius, union of art and industry; other figures: Herbert Bayer, Marcel Breuer, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Laszio Moholy-Nagy, and Wilhelm Wagenfeld- [1933 - disbanded by Nazi] 

B. Design Profession: USA
  • 1929 - US comsumer society emerges: commercial artist, advertising, illustrators
  • 1940 - Design business practice common; independent consultants
  • 1939 - New York World's Fair - visual coherence and social harmony; Utopian dream 

C. Postwar Europe
  • 1944 - Council of Industrial Design; stifled creativity
  • 1947 - Swiss design: Armin Hofmann, Emil Ruder, Kunstgewerbeschule Basel
  • 1960 - Pop art; Pentagram Design: Colin Forbes, Theo Crosby
  • 1953 - Bauhaus tradition to Hochschule für Gestaltung at Uml. Max Bill and Tomas Maldonado; Dieter Rams at Braun AG.
  • 1960 - Scandinavian designer: Alvar Aalto
  • 1961 - Italian designer: Ettore Sottsass, Memphis group
  • 1968 - Post-Modernism: Wolfgang Weingart, Steff Geissbuhler, Odermatt & Tissi
D. Comtemporary American Graphic Design
  • 1950 - MOMA, promote good design, refugees Gropius, Mies, Breuer; New Bauhaus, Chicago, ID-IIT; Yale University: Alvin Eisenman, Paul Rand, Herbert Matter, Norman Ives
  • 1960 - The New York School: Paul Rand, Alexey Brodovich, Henry Wolf, Herb Lubalin, George Lois
  • 1970 - Corporate graphics: Olivetti, CBS, CIBA, IBM, Chase, Mobil, Mexico Olympic
  • 1979 - New Wave: April Greiman, Kenneth Hiebert, Paula Scher
  • 1980 - Micro processor (1984 - Apple Computer, MacWrite, MacPaint)
  • 1993 - Internet: Mosiac & Netscape


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